Coffee is not a perfect drug delivery system; it exerts effects upon multiple tissues and there are many side-effects, any one of which may be experienced to a greater or lesser degree depending upon your current state of health. Still, it appears to be a good thing for lots of people. Consider reading the following articles if you have access, or at least glance through the free abstracts:
Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
- J Hypertens. 2005 May;23(5):921-8.
The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.
- Hypertension. 1999 Feb;33(2):647-52.
Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):240-4.
Effect of chronic coffee consumption on aortic stiffness and wave reflections in hypertensive patients.
- Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;61(6):796-802. Epub 2006 Dec 13.
- Coffee impairs the function of the heart, although its effect is less detrimental in individuals who are already hypertensive.
Does coffee consumption reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose?
- Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2385-90.
- Yep; “this study confirms a striking protective effect of caffeinated coffee against incident diabetes…”.
Coffee and health: a review of recent human research.
- Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(2):101-23.
- The amount of caffeine in coffee is quite variable (72-150mg per 8oz cup black coffee, 58-76 in a single shot of espresso). French press coffee, while not boiled, contains a significant amount of the diterpene components associated with a rise in total and LDL cholesterol. Cigarette smoking induces CYP1A2 activity, which accelerates caffeine metabolism and results in lowered dose-responses for these individuals. Coffee studies are extensively complicated by confounding factors and genetic factors affecting metabolism and thus metabolite exposure dosage. Significant coffee intake appears to be associated with protection from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Coffee has been associated with protection from Parkinson disease, but the results are very weak; it’s probably not a strong enough result to recommend coffee consumption strictly for this purpose.
Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease.
- Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Feb;18(1):13-9.
- Coffee, especially when prepared without a paper filter, contains a significant amount of diterpene compounds associated with a detrimnetal serum lipid profile. Paradoxically, coffee is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease, possibly because of the antioxidants also present in the coffee.
Coffee consumption and human health–beneficial or detrimental?–Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Mar;49(3):274-84.
- “Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”
Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women.
- Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1996 Jun-Jul;23(6-7):559-63.
- Tea or coffee with lunch prevents falls related to the “post-prandial” drop in blood pressur, but coffee presents the risk of increased diastolic bp in untreated hypertensives; not exactly a suprise, but useful knowledge for geriatric nursing.